Despite the well-known existence of load-balanced forwarding paths in the Internet, current active topology Internet-wide mapping efforts are multipath agnostic -- largely because of the probing volume and time required for existing multipath discovery techniques. This paper introduces D-Miner, a system that marries previous work on high-speed probing with multipath discovery to make Internet-wide topology mapping, inclusive of load-balanced paths, feasible. We deploy D-Miner and collect multiple IPv4 interface-level topology snapshots, where we find > 64% more edges, and significantly more complex topologies relative to existing systems. We further scru- tinize topological changes between snapshots and attribute forwarding differences not to routing or policy changes, but to load balancer "remapping" events. We precisely catego- rize remapping events and find that they are a much more frequent contributor of path changes than previously recog- nized. By making D-Miner and our collected Internet-wide topologies publicly available, we hope to help facilitate better understanding of the Internet's true structure and resilience.
[Kevin's Presentation Slides]
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